Nea Erythraia was founded by Greek refugees from the region of the Erythraean (Karaburun) peninsula of Asia Minor and specifically from the villages of Lythri, Vourla , Alatsata, Cesme, Sibrisari, Karabourna, Meli etc., who fled to Kifissia after the Anatolian Disaster of 1922 . The first moves for the creation of Nea Eythraia began with the foundation of the Kifissia Refugees Association (1923), which focused on urban rehabilitation. The first buildings appeared in 1925 when the Ministry of Welfare declared the appropriation of 152 acres, which were distributed to 364 families, members of the Association. Other expropriations (of about 900 acres) followed.
Thus, the Municipality of Nea Erythraia begins to function as a settlement of the Municipality of Athens in 1925. In September 1927, the church of Evangelistria and the building of the 1st elementary school were founded. The 1st elementary school is directly linked to the history of Nea Erythraia and is a point of reference for all its residents. It was housed in a wooden barrage, which was comprised of two halls and a room for the teacher in the area in front of the church of Evangelistria. The school operated in that state until 1931, when the government of E. Venizelos, with  G. Papandreou as its Minister of Education, built the new building that houses the current school.
In 1934, under the suffocating pressure of subsistence needs, the Municipality of Nea Erythraia became a community with Georgios Georgiadis as its first president.  The economic activity of the first residents of N. Erythraia began with the cultivation of land with wine-grape vines, with the art and passion of the people of Asia Minor.
On 14-12-37, the community was abolished and Kifissia included Nea Erythraia into its administrative limits in order to become a municipality. This status was maintained until 1948, when Erythraia was detached from Kifissia and became once again a community with Dimitris Anagnostou as its president. On 1/1/2011, under the law 3852/2010 Government Gazette 87Α/7-6-2010 (Kallikratis Programme), Nea Erythraia became a Municipal Unit of the Kallikratic Municipality of Kifissia with Kifissia and Ekali.
In recent years, the municipality has demonstrated a significant engagement with the development of cultural and social activities, as well as with the construction of infrastructure and utilities.
In 1992, the Folk Museum of the Association of Asia Minor Greeks of Nea Erythraia inaugurated. The Museum hosts 1,380 items and includes heirlooms from various parts of Asia Minor donated by Asia Minor Greeks residing in Nea Erythraia and other parts of Greece.
Today, the Municipal Unity of N. Erythraia is subordinated to the sub-unit of the Attica basin, in accordance with the provisions of the law 1515/1985. It is located in the northern part of the capital’s agglomeration, 15 km from the center of Athens. It borders with the following municipalities and communities: with the Municipality of Acharnes to the north-west, with the Municipality of Kryoneri and the Municipal Unit of Ekali to the north and with the Municipal Unit of Kifissia to the east, south and west. The Municipal Unit of N. Erythraia has a total surface area of 6,500 acres. Of these 3,460 acres form the statutory planned building project, while the remaining 3,040 acres are currently out of the unplanned building project (area within the general urban development plan of 4,000 acres).
According to the general urban development plan, the residential network of Nea Erythraia consists of four urban development plan units
  • Synikismos area
  • Ethnikiston kai Anapiron Polemou area
  • Kastri – Politia area
  • Mortero area
In recent years, Kastri has grown, while Mortero is being built and developed after the incorporation in the city planned project of the “Trigono Ethnikis Antistasis” area.